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Defected ((LINK))

During the Cold War, the many people illegally emigrating from the Soviet Union or Eastern Bloc to the West were called defectors. Westerners defected to the Eastern Bloc as well, often to avoid prosecution as spies. Some of the more famous cases were British spy Kim Philby, who defected to the USSR to avoid exposure as a KGB mole, and 22 Allied POWs (one Briton and twenty-one Americans) who declined repatriation after the Korean War, electing to remain in China.


In 2019, Yuniesky Betancourt became the first player to return to Cuba after having defected and played in MLB, followed soon by Erisbel Arruebaruena. Pavel Quesada and Lisban Correa also returned around this time after not signing with a MLB team. In the 2023 World Baseball Classic, players who had defected were allowed to play for the Cuban national team for the first time without having been repatriated, opening the door for some defectors to appear for the national team for the first time, such as Luis Robert.

The LC equivalent circuit model of the DGS is shown in Figure 4. An equivalent circuit model of one-pole Butterworth low pass filter is shown in Figure 4(b). The current path is increased due to the rectangular parts of dumbbell DGS; thus effective inductance and effective capacitance of microstrip line are changed. The two rectangular slots of dumbbell DGS are responsible for adding a capacitive effect and a thin rectangular defected slot which connects both the rectangular shaped defects accounts for adding the inductance to the total impedance. Due to this LC circuit, a resonance is occurred at a certain frequency. The slotted area of the DGS is proportional to the effective inductance and inversely proportional to the effective capacitance. An increment in slotted DGS area gives rise to the effective inductance thus results in a lower cut-off frequency. A decrement in the DGS area reduces the effective capacitance, thereby increasing the resonant frequency.

  • A unique exploration of critical topics in defected ground structures and their applications In Defected Ground Structure (DGS) Based Antennas: Design Physics, Engineering, and Applications, three distinguished authors deliver a comprehensive discussion of key topics related to defected ground structures (DGSs) and their applications to advanced antenna designs, including microstrips, arrays, dielectric resonators, PIFA, and printed monopoles. The book explores major advances in the technology that have occurred since 2006, as well as the fundamentals of the research in the subject. It also presents future possibilities for new researchers to assist in the development of new studies and technologies for practicing engineers and developers. Readers will discover: A thorough introduction to the concept and evolution of defected ground structure-based antennas

  • In-depth examinations of defected ground structures for printed antenna feeds

  • Comprehensive discussions of the use of defected ground structures to control unwanted modes under a microstrip patch for reducing cross-polarized radiation

  • Enlightening descriptions of defected ground structures used to control mutual coupling in arrays and MIMO designs

Perfect for students, researchers, and professionals with an interest in wireless communications, Defected Ground Structure (DGS) Based Antennas: Design Physics, Engineering, and Applications will also earn a place in the libraries of engineers and scientists working in space exploration and defense organizations. About the Author Debatosh Guha, PhD, is a Professor in Radio Physics and Electronics at the University of Calcutta, India. He co-edited Microstrip and Printed Antennas: New Trends, Techniques and Applications in 2010. Chandrakanta Kumar, PhD, is Head of the Electromagnetics Section at the Communication Systems Group of the U R Rao Satellite Centre in Bangalore, India. His professional focus is on the design and development of antenna systems for the Indian space program. Sujoy Biswas, PhD, is an Associate Professor at the Neotia Institute of Technology Management and Science. He is on the Board of Reviewers at a variety of journals, including IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation. Permissions Request permission to reuse content from this site

Witt had been on the FBI's radar at least a year before she defected after she attended an Iranian conference and appeared in anti-American videos. She was warned about her activities, but told agents that she would not provide sensitive information about her work if she returned to Iran, prosecutors say. She was not arrested at the time.

The Texas native defected to Iran in 2013 after being invited to two all-expense-paid conferences in the country that the Justice Department says promoted anti-Western propaganda and condemned American moral standards. 041b061a72

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